Tianjin ▶ (Chinese: 天津; pinyin: Tiānjīn; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of four municipalities of the People's Republic of China that are administered directly under the central government and have provincial-level status. It is located in the northeastern part of the country along the eastern coast. Tianjin borders Hebei to its south and northeast, while Beijing municipality lies to its north and the Bohai Bay in the Pacific Ocean lies to the east.
The urban area of Tianjin is located along the Haihe River, and is the third largest in China, after Shanghai and Beijing. Its ports, located some distance away from the urban center, are located on the Bohai Gulf in the Pacific Ocean. It serves a vital role as a sea passage route to Beijing, having historically been an important fort and doorway to the capital city. Tianjin is also a communication hub linking North China, Northeast China and Northwest China.
The city boasts the largest man-made harbor in all of China in its northern area, and its Tianjin Port is an important transmission point, linking dozens of provinces and cities in North China with the sea. With over 30 navigation routes leading to more than 300 international ports, Tianjin also serves as a major channel linking the continents of Asia and Europe by sea. All of these factors make Tianjin a vital geographical location of great strategic importance to the People's Republic of China.
Tianjin lies at the northern end of the Grand Canal of China （大运河), which connects the Yellow（黄河）and Yangtze（长江）rivers.
Tianjin municipality is generally flat and swampy near the coast, but hilly in the far north, where the Yanshan Mountains（燕山）pass through the tip of northern Tianjin. The highest point in the municipality is Jiushanding Peak on the northern border with Hebei, at an altitude of 1,078 m.
The Haihe River（海河）forms within Tianjin municipality at the confluence of the Ziya River (子牙河）, Daqing River（大清河, Yongding River (永定河), North Grand Canal, and South Grand Canal and enters the Pacific Ocean at Tianjin Municipality as well, in Dagu District. Major reservoirs include the Beidagang Reservoir in the extreme south (in Dagang District) and the Yuqiao Reservoir in the extreme north (in Ji County).
The urban area of Tianjin is found in the south-central part of the Municipality. In addition to the main urban area of Tianjin proper, the coast along the Bohai Bay is lined with a series of port towns, including Tanggu（塘沽）and Hangu（汉沽).
Tianjin's climate is a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dwa) characterized by hot, humid summers, due to the monsoon, and dry, cold winters, due to the Siberian anticyclone. Average highs in January and July are 36 degrees F (2C) and 87 degrees F (31C) respectively. Spring is windy but dry, and most of the precipitation takes place in July and August. Tianjin also experiences occasional spring sandstorms which blow in from the Gobi Desert and may last for several days.
Major rivers and lakes:
- Haihe River
- Liujian River
- Yongding River
- New Yongding River
- Qianqilihi Lake
Modern buildings in Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Area (TEDA)
Farmland takes up about 40 percent of Tianjin Municipality's total area. Wheat, rice, and maize are the most important crops, while fishing is important along the coast.
Tianjin has a sizable mineral base, including: manganese, boron, gold, tungsten, molybdenum, copper, aluminum, lead, actinium, zinc, limestone, and natural oilstone. Crude oil and natural gas are the main fuels. Tianjin has deposits of about 1 billion tons of petroleum, with Dagang District containing numerous important oilfields. Salt production is also important, with Changlu Yanqu being one of China's most important salt production areas. Geothermal energy is another significant resource of Tianjin.
Tianjin is also an important industrial base. Major industries include petrochemical industries, textiles, car manufacturing, mechanical industries, and metalworking.
The nominal GDP for Tianjin was 433.8 billion yuan (US$54.4 billion) in 2006, a year-on-year increase of 14.4 percent.
In2006, per capita GDP was 40,961 yuan. The manufacturing sector was the largest (53.2 percent) and fastest-growing (19.8 percent) sector of Tianjin's economy. Urban disposable income per capita was 14,283 yuan, a real increase of 13 percent from the previous year.Rural pure income per capita was 7,942 yuan, a real increase of 13 percent from the previous year.