Jiangsu ▶ (Simplified Chinese: 江苏; Traditional Chinese: 江蘇; pinyin: Jiāngsū; Wade-Giles: Chiang-su; Postal map spelling: Kiangsu) is a province of the People's Republic of China located along the country's eastern coast. Jiangsu borders Shandong to the north, Anhui to the west, and Zhejiang and Shanghai municipality to the south. Its name comes from jiang, (short for the city of Jiangning (now Nanjing) and su (for the city of Suzhou). The abbreviation for this province is "苏" (sū), the second character of its name.
Jiangsu has a coastline that extends over a thousand kilometers along the Yellow Sea, with the Yangtze River passing through its southern parts. Since the inception of economic reforms in 1978, Jiangsu, like many of the other areas along the "gold coast" of China, has been a hot spot for economic development, and now has emerged as one of China's most prosperous provinces. The economic divide between the rich southern regions and the impoverished north remains a prominent issue in the province, as does the national divide between rich and poor, which has steadily increased ever since the implementation of economic reforms.
Jiangsu is divided into thirteen prefecture-level divisions, all prefecture-level cities:
· Nanjing (Simplified Chinese: 南京市, Hanyu Pinyin: Nánjīng Shì)
· Xuzhou (徐州市 Xúzhōu Shì)
· Lianyungang (连云港市 Liányúngǎng Shì)
· Suqian (宿迁市 Sùqiān Shì)
· Huai'an (淮安市 Huái'ān Shì)
· Yancheng (盐城市 Yánchéng Shì)
· Yangzhou (扬州市 Yángzhōu Shì)
· Taizhou (泰州市 Tàizhōu Shì)
· Nantong (南通市 Nántōng Shì)
· Zhenjiang (镇江市 Zhènjiāng Shì)
· Changzhou (常州市 Chángzhōu Shì)
· Wuxi (无锡市 Wúxī Shì)
· Suzhou (苏州市 Sūzhōu Shì)
The 13 prefecture-level divisions of Jiangsu are subdivided into 106 county-level divisions (54 districts, 27 county-level cities, and 25 counties). Those are in turn divided into 1488 township-level divisions (1078 towns, 122 townships, one ethnic township, and 287 subdistricts).
Modern Nanjing skyline.
Jiangsu has an extensive irrigation system supporting its agricultural sector, which is based primarily on rice and wheat, followed by maize and sorghum. Some of the province's important cash crops include cotton, soybeans, peanuts, rapeseed, sesame, ambary hemp, and tea, while other products include peppermint, spearmint, bamboo, medicinal herbs, apples, pears, peaches, loquats, and ginkgo. Silkworms also form an important part of Jiangsu's agriculture, with the Lake Taihu region to the south serving as a major base of silk production in all of China. In addition to this, Jiangsu is abundant in marine life, including the yellow-fin tuna, hairtail, changfish, shrimp, algae, and shellfish. As such, it serves as an important source of freshwater fish and other aquatic products for the country.
In terms of mineral resources, Jiangsu has sizable reserves of copper, lead, zinc, silver, gold, and manganese. It also has coal, petroleum, and natural gas deposits, but its most significant mineral products are non-metal minerals such as halite (rock salt), sulfur, phosphorus, cyanite, sapphire, diamond, limestone, quartz sand, clay, and marble. The salt mines of Huaiyin have more than 0.4 trillion tons of deposits, which make it one of the greatest collections of salt in China.
Jiangsu has historically been oriented towards light industries such as textiles and the food industry, but since 1949, the province has also developed other industries machinery, electronics, chemicals, construction materials, and an automobile industry. The economic reforms of Deng Xiaoping have greatly benefited southern cities, especially Suzhou and Wuxi, which outstrip the provincial capital Nanjing in total output. In the eastern outskirts of Suzhou, Singapore has built the Suzhou Industrial Park, a flagship of PRC-Singapore cooperation and the only industrial park in China that is in its entirety the investment of one single foreign country.
Jiangsu is very wealthy among the provinces of China, with the second highest total GDP (after Guangdong Province). Its GDP per capita was 14,500 yuan in 2002, but geographical disparity is great, and southern cities like Suzhou and Wuxi have GDP per capita around twice the provincial average, making south Jiangsu one of the most prosperous regions in China.
In 2004, Jiangsu's nominal GDP was 1.54 trillion yuan (US$191.42 billion), making it the third largest GDP of all the provinces and an annual growth rate of 13.5%. Its per capita GDP was 16,796 yuan (US$2,029). The share of GDP of Jiangsu's primary, secondary, and tertiary industries were 8.9 percent, 54.5 percent, and 36.6 percent respectively. The share of GDP by the public and private sector was 49.0 percent and 51.0 percent respectively.